XXVII. Of the Sacraments

1. Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace, (Rom. 4:11Gen. 17:7,10) immediately instituted by God, (Matt. 28:191 Cor. 11:23) to represent Christ and His benefits; and to confirm our interest in Him: (1 Cor. 10:161 Cor. 11:25–26Gal. 3:27Gal. 3:17) as also, to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the Church and the rest of the world; (Rom. 15:8Exod. 12:48Gen. 34:14) and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to His Word. (Rom. 6:3–41 Cor. 10:16,21)

2. There is, in every sacrament, a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified: whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other. (Gen. 17:10Matt. 26:27–28Tit. 3:5)

3. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them; neither doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it: (Rom. 2:28–291 Pet. 3:21) but upon the work of the Spirit, (Matt. 3:111 Cor. 12:13) and the word of institution, which contains, together with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers. (Matt. 26:27–28Matt. 28:19–20)

4. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the Gospel; that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord: neither of which may be dispensed by any, but by a minister of the Word lawfully ordained. (Matt. 28:191 Cor. 11:20231 Cor. 4:1Heb. 5:4)

5. The sacraments of the old testament in regard of the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the new. (1 Cor. 10:1–4)